Heraclitus of Ephesus-Greek Philosopher-Urdu
هرقلیطوس افیسوسی۔ قدیم یونانی فلسفی
Heraclitus of Ephesus (c. 535 – 475 B.C.) was a Pre-Socratic Greek philosopher from Ephesus, on the Ionian coast of modern-day Turkey. He is sometimes mentioned in connection with the Ephesian School of philosophy, although he was really the only prominent member of that school (which, along with the Milesian School, is often considered part of the Ionian School). Heraclitus of Ephesus-Greek Philosopher-Urdu
The Dark Man
He was sometimes history knows him as “the Obscure” (or “the Dark“). Because of the deliberate difficulty and unclearness of his teachings. He was also known as the “Weeping Philosopher”. There is no evidence that he was prone to melancholia or depression, which prevented him from finishing some of his works. There is no record of his travel, even as far as the nearby learning center of Miletus. Although he seems to have been familiar with the ideas of the Milesian School.
Law of Perpetual Change
Unlike many of the other Pre-Socratic philosophers, Heraclitus believed that the world has no identification with any particular substance. But rather consists of a law-like interchange of elements. An ongoing process governed by a law of perpetual change, or Logos. Which he symbolized by fire. According to Heraclitus, fire provides a kind of standard of value for other stuff. But it is not identical to them and is not the unique source of all things. Because all stuff are equivalent and one thing is transformed into another in a cycle of changes.
Important Principle of Order
He further believed that the laws of a city-state are an important principle of order and that they derive their force from divine law. In this way, he introduced the notion of a law of nature that informs human society as well as nature, and this idea of an inherent moral law greatly influenced the later Stoicism movement.